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Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking and the ECtHR’s inadmissibility decision in G.J. v. Spain


The case law under Article 4 of the ECHR which enshrines the right not to be held in slavery, servitude and forced labour, is scarce. This is more than surprising against the backdrop of ample empirical evidence showing that migrants, including sex workers, are subjected to severe forms of exploitation in Europe (see, for example, the report by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency published in 2015 Severe...

The two European Courts on seeking asylum due to religious persecution



The freedom to adopt and manifest a religion or belief is enshrined in Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and Article 10 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (Charter). Freedom of religion is also the subject of General Comment No. 22 of the UN Human Rights Committee, and two declarations of the UN...