Spain: National Court. Chamber of Contentious-Administrative Proceedings n. 4060/2018, 18th October 2018, Appeal No. 581/2017

Země, kde bylo rozhodnutí vydáno:
Země žadatele:
Date of Decision:
18-10-2018
Číslo rozhodnutí:
Chamber of Contentious-Administrative Proceedings Case 4060/2018, of 18 October 2018.
Název soudu:
Audiencia Nacional. Sala de lo Contencioso.
Klíčová slova:
National / Other Legislative Provisions:
ICC Statute - Article 3
Act 12/2009 of 30 October regulating the Right of Asylum and Subsidiary Protection (Ley 12/2009
Spain - Royal Decree 203/1995
Spain - Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española. Boletín Oficial del Estado
Spain - Act 5/1984 of 26 March regulating the right to asylum and refugee status (Ley 5/1984
Spain - Organic Act 4/2000 on the Rights and Liberties of Foreigners in Spain and their Social Integration (“Act on Foreigners”)
Spain - Spanish Royal Decree 557/2011
Act 29/1998 of 13 July regulating the Administrative Jurisdiction (Ley 29/1998
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Skutkový stav : 

The applicant, from Venezuela, was denied asylum and subsidiary protection on 20th April 2018 due to the lack of proof of individual persecution in her country of origin.  

The situation in Venezuela has become difficult and violent throughout the past years. It is extensively described by reports of several NGOs and international organisations and it is proved to cause a distortion in the developing of a normal life for people residing in the country. The appellant claims that the situation of violence and insecurity in Caracas had caused her fear to live her house and maintain normal living conditions.

With the aim of improving her quality of living, she travelled to Ecuador with her partner, where she lived for three months before flying to Madrid on 21st October 2015. She claims that it was impossible for them to maintain a normal standard of living conditions in Ecuador due to her health-related issues and lack of medical material, the xenophobia experienced by locals and the impossibility of finding well-paid jobs. Due to the bad situation in Ecuador, they decided to leave the country and move to Spain.

Rozhodnutí a odůvodnění: 

The contested decision was made following the concept of persecution required to be granted asylum by the Geneva Convention of 1951 and the interpretation that domestic and international courts have followed in the matter.

The appellant appeals the previous decision claiming that there are grounds to fear the violence, fear and insecurity that exists in her home country; this is the main reason she seeks international protection. In order to grant refugee status, the appellant should have a well-founded fear of persecution if returned to her home country. In terms of interpretation by Spanish Courts, the concept of persecution should be interpreted restrictively; therefore, sufficient proof of persecution would be enough to declare this element, not being necessary to state individual persecution towards the asylum applicant. 

However, the Court does not consider that a situation of generalized violence exists in Venezuela, meaning that the return of the appellant to her home country would not result automatically in a risk to her life or physical integrity. The Court does not find substantial proof that she has a well-founded fear of persecution in Venezuela, therefore she cannot be granted asylum.

Even if there is not sufficient proof to conclude that Venezuela nationals would suffer any kind of danger, an analysis of the circumstances of the country is enough to declare that it is likely that they would be deprived of elementary needs and exposed to big levels of violence. The appellant is granted an authorization to stay in the country under humanitarian reasons due to the negative evolution of the situation in Venezuela.

Výsledek: 

Appeal partially granted. 

Komentáře/Poznámky: 

Despite not being granted refugeehood, she is given the authorization to stay in Spain under humanitarian reasons. The situation in Venezuela, as explained by the several reports cited both by the Court and the appellant, is critic. As a result of this, the international community has been asked to analyse the petitions surrounding this conflict in light of the dangers and persecution that they would suffer if going back to Venezuela. Even if this persecution is not proved to be individual and there is not sufficient proof to conclude that Venezuela nationals would suffer any kind of danger, an analysis of the circumstances of the country would be enough to declare that it is likely that they would be deprived of elementary needs and exposed to big levels of violence. IADA – Asylum Information Database: Treatment of specific nationalities in the procedure – Country Report, Spain 2018. https://www.asylumineurope.org/reports/country/spain/differential-treatm...

Jiné citované zdroje: 

European Union: European Commission, Proposal for a Council Directive on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals and stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection, 12 September 2001, COM(2001) 510 final.

AI - Amnesty International: Venezuela: human rights at risk amid protests – Spain, 2014.

Freedom House: Freedom in the World 2015 - Venezuela, 28 January 2015.

HRW - Human Rights Watch: World Report 2015 - Venezuela, 29 January 2015.

Al - Amnesty International: Amnesty International Report 2014/15 - The State of the World's Human Rights - Venezuela, 25 February 2015.

USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2014 Venezuela, 25 June 2015.

Freedom House: Freedom in the World 2016 - Venezuela, 27 January 2016.

USDOS - US Department of State: Country Report on Human Rights Practices – United States of America, 2017.

OVV – Observatorio Venezolano de Violencia: Informe OVV de Violencia – Venezuela, 2017.

WJP – World Justice Project: WJP Rule of Law Index 2016 Report – 2016.

Corporación Andina de Fomento: Por una América Latina más segura- 2013.

United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner: Human rights violations and abuses in the context of protests in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela from 1 April to 31 July 2017 – Geneva, August 2017.

HRW – Human Rights Watch: Venezuela’s Humanitarian Crisis: Severe Medical and Food Shortages, Inadequate and Repressive Government Response – 24 October 2016.

EASO – European Asylum Support Office: Venezuelans seeking asylum in EU up by almost 800% in two years – 4 April 2018.

EASO – European Asylum Support Office: Latest asylum trends - April 2018.

UNHCR: Nota de orientación sobre el flujo de los venezolanos - March 2018

OHCHR - Office of the United High Commissioner for Human Rights: Human rights violations in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: a downward spiral with no end in sight – June 2018.

 

Case Law Cited: 

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 1656/2000 (Contentious Chamber, Section 6), of March 2, 2000 (appeal n. 217/1996) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 1656/2000 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 6ª), de 2 de marzo de 2000 (recurso n. 217/1996))

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 4920/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of November 14, 2007 (appeal n. 262/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 4920/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 4ª), de 14 de noviembre de 2007

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 3235/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of July 18, 2007 (appeal n. 106/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 3235/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 4ª), de 18 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 106/200

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 3391/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of July 18, 2007 (appeal n. 98/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 3391/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 18 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 98/2007)

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 3237/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of July 11, 2007 (appeal n. 108/2007) -(Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 3237/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 4ª), de 11 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 108/2007

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 2995/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of July 4, 2007 (appeal n. 142/2007)

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 6987/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of October 31, 2007 (appeal n. 2041/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 6987/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 31 de octubre de 2007 (recurso n. 2041/2004))

ECtHR - N v Finland, Application no. 38885/02

CJEU - C-549/07, Wallentin-Hermann

ECtHR - H.L.R. v. France, Application no. 24573/94

CJEU - C‑119/12 Probst

Judgment of the National Court n. 5119/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of November 21, 2007 (appeal n. 189/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 5119/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 4ª), de 21 de noviembre de 2007

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 8791/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of December 20, 2007 (appeal n. 3586/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 8791/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 20 de diciembre de 2007 (recurso n. 3586/2004))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 4091/1998 (Contentious Chamber, Section 7), of June 19, 1998 (appeal n. 52/1997) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 4091/1998 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 7ª), de 19 de junio de 1998 (recurso n. 52/1997))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 436/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of February 15, 2008 (appeal n. 2499/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 436/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 15 de febrero de 2008 (recurso n. 2499/2004))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 4357/1989 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of July 18, 1989 – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 4357/1989 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 18 de julio de 1989)

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 2411/1989 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of April 10, 1989 – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 2411/1989 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 10 de abril de 1989)

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 15278/1989 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of March 4, 1989 (appeal n. 1883/1988) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 15278/1989 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 4 de marzo de 1989

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 5983/2002 (Contentious Chamber, Section 7), of September 20, 2002 (appeal n. 2567/1998) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 5983/2002 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 7ª), de 20 de septiembre de 2002

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 5188/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of July 12, 2007 (appeal n. 1466/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 5188/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 12 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 1466/2004))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 4771/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of July 5, 2007 (appeal n. 1152/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 4771/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 5 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 1152/2004))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 1757/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of April 30, 2008 (appeal n. 6358/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 1757/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 30 de abril de 2008 (recurso n. 6358/2004))

Spain - Supreme Court ruling n. 35/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 5), of January 9, 2008 (appeal 1197/2004) – (Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo n. 35/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 5ª), de 9 de enero de 2008 (recurso 1197/2004))

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 296/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of January 30, 2008 (appeal n. 195/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 296/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 30 de enero de 2008

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 1754/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of June 4, 2008 (appeal n. 33/2008) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 1754/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 4 de junio de 2008 (recurso n. 33/2008))

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 3002/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of June 4, 2008 (appeal n. 21/2008) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 3002/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 4 de junio de 2008 (recurso n. 21/2008)

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 5154/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of December 3, 2007 (appeal n. 188/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 5154/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 3 de diciembre de 2007

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 4437/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of October 24, 2007 (appeal n. 115/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 4437/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 24 de octubre de 2007

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 3399/2007 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of July 18, 2007 (appeal n. 89/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 3399/2007 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 18 de julio de 2007 (recurso n. 89/2007)

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 997/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 1), of April 23, 2008 (appeal n. 220/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 997/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 1ª), de 23 de abril de 2008

Spain - Judgment of the National Court n. 321/2008 (Contentious Chamber, Section 4), of February 6, 2008 (appeal n. 271/2007) – (Sentencia de la Audiencia Nacional n. 321/2008 (Sala de lo Contencioso, Sección 4ª), de 6 de febrero de 2008